phonics的 29个拼写规则介绍

admin 2020-08-22 阅读:186

  这篇是技术贴,主要列出了拼读拼写中的一些规则,需要认真学习。

  学习方法是在学习单词的过程中,遇到相应的规则就教给孩子,不用逐条背诵规则。

  记住这些规则,妈妈再也不用担心孩子的英文拼读了。

  1、 Q U

  Rule:Q is always followedby U. U is not a vowel here.(queen)

  规则:Q后面总是跟着U,U在这里不是元音。(比如:queen)。

  2、 C

  Rule: The letter C usually says [k] (cat,cot, cut), but C saysbefore e, i, or y(cent, city, cycle).

  规则:C通常发音[k] (比如:cat, cot, cut),但是C 在e, i, y前发音。(比如:cent, city, cycle)

  3、 G

  Rule: The letter g usually says [g] (gate,go, gust), but g may say [d] before e, i, or y (page, giant, gym). The letterse and i following g do not always make the g say [d] (get, girl, give)

  规则:G通常发音[g],但是G 在e, i, y前可能发音[d]。e和i 不一定总是让前面的g发音[d] (比如:get, girl, give)

  4、 A,E,O,U

  Rule: A, E, O, U usually say letter name atthe end of a syllable.7 D! \8 M3 k+ r

  规则:A, E, O, U在音节尾通常发音字母音。

  5、I & Y

  Rule: I and Y may say [ai]at the end of asyllable (si lent, cy cle), but usually say (in ci dent, cy cli cal). Theunaccented suffix-y may say [i:] at the end of a word(ba by, dad dy). The i atthe end of a syllable before another vowel that begins the next syllable maysay [i:](ra di o, me di a)- S5 C/ N/ A9 m, w6 Y

  规则:I 和 Y 在音节尾可能发音[ai],但通常发音。

  非重读音节词尾的后缀y,可能读[i:](实际发音处在长音[i:]和短音之间)。I 在音节尾、下一音节首是另一元音时,i 可能会读[i:] (ra di o, me di a, period, curious);

  6、Y not I

  Rule: English words do not end in i, j, uor v. the letter y, not i, is used at the end of an English word(my).

  规则:英语单词不以i, j, u o或者 v 结尾。用y替代i用在英语单词词尾。

  7、silent final Es

  Rule 7-1: silent final e is to let thevowel say its second sound(letter name)

  规则7-1:结尾不发音e使跟它隔一个字母的元音字母发第二音(即字母音,长音)

  Rule 7-2: silent final e is to prevent usfrom ending an English word with u or v, because English words do not end in i,j, u or v.

  规则7-2:避免u和v出现在英语单词词尾。因为英语单词不以i, j, u 或者 v结尾。

  Rule 7-3: silent final e is to soften a cor g(to make c says,g says [d])

  规则7-3: 使c和g读轻音(使c读,g读[d])

  Rule 7-4: silent final e is to prevent usfrom having a syllable with no vowel. Every syllable must have a written vowel.

  规则7-4: 避免一个音节中没有元音。因为每一个音节都必须要有一个元音字母。

  Rule 7-5ther jobs or unknown reasons:

  (1) The E keeps a word that is notplural from ending in an ‘s’ Ex: dense(not dens),purse(not purs),false(notfals).跟其他单词的复数形式做区别。

  (2) The E adds length to a shortmain-idea word. Ex.: are, ewe, rye.避免单词过短。

  (3) The E gives a distinction inmeaning between homonyms. Ex: or/ore, for/fore.与同音字相区别。

  (4) The E is left over from MiddleEnglish or a foreign language where the final E was once pronounced. Ex:treatise, giraffe.在中古英语或外来语中曾经发音的e得以保留下来。

  8、WOR

  Rule: The phonogram or may say [:] afterthe w(works).

  规则:or通常读[r:],但是or跟在w后,通常读[:](例外,仍读[r:] worn sworn sword)

  9、IE or EI

  Rule: We use the ie most often. We use theie to say [i:](piece), as a suffix(mov ie), to say[ai](pie). We use the eiafter c(re ceive),if we say [ei],and in some exceptions.(Either weird foreignsovereign forfeited leisure. Neither heifer seized counterfeit protein.)

  规则:

  ie:我们最常用ie.(发音为[i:],[ ai]时用ie,表示后缀时也用ie)

  ei:用ei有三种情况:1.在c后;2.如果读[ei](因为ie没有[ei]这个读音);3.例外,这些词可以用以下两个句子:

  Either weird foreign sovereign forfeitedleisure.

  Neither heifer seized counterfeit protein.

  10、SH

  Rule: SH is used at the beginning of aword(she),at the end of a syllable/word(fish/fish es),but not at the beginningof any syllable after the first one(na tion), except for theending-ship(friendship).)

  Rule:

  规则:SH用在单词词首、在音节或单词尾,但不用在非第一音节的其他首位(除了后缀-ship)

  11、TI, SI, CI

  Rule11-1: The ti, si, ci say [] at thebeginning of any syllable after the first one.

  规则11-1:ti, si, ci 用在非第一音节的其他首位,读[]。

  Rule11-2: The si say [] when the precedingsyllable ends with s (ses sion) and when the root word has an s(manse/mansion).Only si can say []except for ti in “equation”(vision)

  规则11-2:前面的音节以S结尾或者当根词以s结尾,si读[],TI, SI, CI中只有si 可以读[](除了equation中的ti)

  12、ABBREVIATIONS 缩写词

  Use a few letters to represent a larger word(Mr. =Mister, m=meter, CA=California).

  13、CONTRACTIONS 缩略词

  Replace a letter (or letters) with anapostrophe to contract (or shorten)a phrase(I am=I’m).

  14、Rule 1-1-1 suffix

  Rule: With a one-syllable wordending in one vowel then one consonant, double the last consonantbefore adding a vowel suffix(get, getting).

  规则:以一个元音加一个辅音结尾的单音节单词,加以元音开头的后缀时,双写最后一个辅音。

  15、Rule 2-1-1 Accent

  Rule: With a two-syllable word ending inone vowel the one consonant, double the last consonant before adding avowel suffix IF the accent is on the last syllable.(for get, for getting)

  规则:以一个元音加一个辅音结尾的双音节或多音节词,加以元音开头的后缀时,如果重音在最后一个音节,则双写辅音后再加后缀。

  16、E’s Dropping Rule

  Rule: Silent final Es commonly lose theneed for the E when adding a vowel suffix(hope/hoping/hopeless). In words likenoticeable or changeable rules 2 and 3 override rule 16

  规则:当加以元音开头的后缀时,一般要去掉结尾不发音的e。但是当符合规则2,3的词比如noticeable 或 changeable,要按照规则2,3,而不用规则16。

  17、F F, L L, S S

  Rule: We often double F, L, S after asingle vowel at the end of a base word (off, all, confess).

  Occasionally other letters are doubled inthis way (ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz).

  规则:单元音后面,词尾的f, l, s通常要双写。(有时还有其他一些字母也双写ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, watt, jazz)

  18、AY

  Rule: AY usually says [ei] at the end of abase word (may, pay). When a word ends with a it says [a:](ma).

  规则:ay用在单词结尾时通常读[ei]。在词尾的a读[a:]。

  19、I&O

  Rule: I and O may say [ai] and [u] whenfollowed by two consonants (find, cold).

  规则:I 和O后面跟着两个辅音,可能发音[ai]和[u]。

  20、S, X &Suffix-es

  Rule20-1: to make most nouns plural, justadd-s. When the word hisses (ch, tch, sh, x, s, z), changes, or just stops withO, add-es. Occasional words have no change, an internal change, or an irregularspelling.

  规则20-1:一般加s。尾音类似“嘶嘶”音的(ch, tch, sh, x, s, z)、需要y变i、f变v(wife/wives; fly/flies)、或者以o结尾的(tomato/tomatoes),加es。少量单词的复数形式保持原形不变(sheep/sheep),或只变中间(man/men),或是无变化规则的拼写形式(alumnus/alumni; piano/pianos)。

  Rule20-2:X is never directlybefore S. (boxes, excel). There is a sound in X.

  规则20-2:X从来不用在s前面。X里有的发音。

  21、Dismiss L rule

  Rule: the words ALL, FULL and till arewritten with one L when they are added to another syllable. (almost, fulfill,careful, until).

  规则:all, full, till, 当它们加到词根上形成另一个音节时,只写一个L。

  22、DGE

  Rule: DGE is used only after a single vowelwhich says []-[e]--[]-[] (badge, edge, ridge, lodge, fudge).

  规则:三个字母音图[d](dge),可用在读[]-[e]--[]-[]的单元音后面。

  23、TCH

  Rule: TCH may be used after a single vowelwhich does not say [ei]-[i:]-[ai]-[u]-[ju:](match, watch, sketch, blotch,crutch, butcher)

  规则:TCH [t],可用在不读[ei]-[i:]-[ai]-[u]-[ju:]的单元音后面。

  24、Y’s Suffixes

  Rule: The single vowel Y (not phonogramsay, ey or oy) changes to i when adding a suffix(try/tried, pup py/pup pies)unless the suffix starts with an i (-ing/try ing, -ish/ba by ish).

  规则:以单元音y结尾的单词,加后缀时,要将y改成i,以i开头的后缀除外。

  25、CK

  Rule: CK used only after a single vowelwhich says[]-[e]--[]-[](back, peck, pick, pock et, truck)

  规则:CK只用在读[]-[e]--[]-[]的单元音后面。

  26、CAPITALIZE

  Rule: Individual names or titles of persons(Jesus), place(Ohio) or things(Bible).

  规则:大写规则。专有名词首字母大写。

  27、Z, NEVER S& u0 r4 ]! u) T0 N! k

  Rule: The z, never s, is used to say [z] atthe beginning of a root word (zebra, zoo).

  规则:单词开头发音[z],用z,永远不会用s。

  28、ED

  Rule: The ed says[d]and[t]as the past tenseending of any root word that does not end in the sound [d](killed)or[t](liked).When the ed says[ed]after words ending with d(land/ land ed) or t(act/act ed)they form another syllable.

  规则:根词词尾读[d]或[t]时,过去式后缀ed读[ed],形成另一个音节。根词词尾不读[d]或[t]时,过去式后缀ed读[d]或[t]。根词词尾是voiced sound(浊音),读[d](voiced);根词词尾是unvoiced sound(清音),读[t](unvoiced)。

  29、Double Consonants

  Rule: Double consonants within words ofmore than one syllable should both be sounded for spelling (lit tle, but ton)

  规则:多音节单词中双写辅音的,为拼写目的需要都读出来



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