英语被动语态的用法以及易错点归纳

admin 2020-09-17 阅读:181

  在英语中,我们把句子的语态分为两种:主动语态与被动语态

  被动语态这一语法是九上unit5单元的语法点,让我们一起来看一下什么是被动语态以及被动语态的用法有哪些吧~

  1. 主动语态和被动语态的概念

  1)He opened the door. 他开了门。

  以上例句是一个主动句,主语是动作的执行者/发出者

  2)The door was opened by him. 门被开了。

  第二个例句是一个被动句,主语是动作的承受者

  汉语中表示被动的词:被…/ 由…/ 受…/ 给…

  英语中表被动用:be+过去分词构成

  2. 被动语态的结构及用法

  1)被动语态的几种句型

  肯定句:主语+be+及物动词的过去分词+(by)

  eg: My phone was made in China.

  否定句:主语+be not+过去分词+(by)

  eg: My phone wasn’t made in China.

  一般疑问句:Be+主语+过去分词+(by)?

  eg: Was your phone made in China?

  特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+be+主语+过去分词+(by)?

  eg: Where was your phone made?

  2)不同时态中的被动语态

  3) 被动语态的用法

  当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时,常用被动语态,这时往往不用by短语。The front window in the classroom was broken yesterday.

  昨天,教室的前窗被打破了。(不知谁打破的)

  They have been poorly paid.

  他们的工资太低。 (没必要指出工资是谁付的)

  突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动作的执行者,用by短语。

  These books are written especially for children.

  这些书是专门为孩子们写的。(强调的是“这些书”)

  3. 主动语态变被动语态

  1)一般情况下主动语态变被动语态

  主动句:He closed the door.

  变被动句: The door was closed by him.

  口诀:宾变主,主变宾,谓变bedone, 时不变,数格必须随被变。

  2)主动语态中若有双宾语

  Vivian gave me a book. 双宾语(me是间宾, book是直宾)

  -Iwas givena book by Vivian. 间接宾语提前

  -A bookwas given tome by Vivian. 直接宾语提前时,要在间接宾语前加介词

  动词make/buy/get用for; 动词give/send/lend/take用to

  3) “感使动词”(feel, hear, listen to, let, have, make, see, watch, notice, look at)真奇怪,主动结构“to”走开,被动结构又请来,十个动词要记牢,不会被它再难倒。

  We saw him play football on the playground.

  我们看见他在操场上打篮球。

  变被动: He was seen to play football on the playground.

  他被我们看到在操场上打篮球。

  4. 主动形式表被动意义

  1) 系动词没有被动语态,如feel, sound, taste, look,become, fall, get, grow, keep, remain, seem, smell, stay, turn等等

  Your idea sounds good. 你的注意听起来蛮好的。

  You look beautiful. 你看起来美美的。

  2) 在need, require, want, be worth , deserve等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义

  The TV needs repairing. 电视需要修理。

  = The TV needs to be repaired.

  3) 一般说来,不及物动词或不及物动词短语不能使用被动语态,常见的有:appear, die, disappear, end(vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, sit, spread, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place,occur等。

  A car accident happenedin the street.

  一场车祸发生在街上。

  Great changes have taken placein my hometown.

  我的故乡发生了巨变。

  4) 在某些形容词后面,当不定式表达的情况与它前面的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,用主动式表示被动意义。

  She has an important meeting to attend.

  她有一个重要的会议要参加。

  5. 易错点总结(常考点)

  1)在时间、条件状语从句中,要用一般现在时的被动语态表示将来时的被动语态。

  If l amgiven enough time, I will do it better.

  给我足够的时间,我会做得更好。

  2)固定结构中的介词或副词在被动结构中不可省去。

  Such a bad habit should be got rid of.

  这样的坏习惯应该改掉。(of 不可以省去的)

  3)有些动词如write, read, sell,wash, open等当强调动作执行情况时, 有被动语态; 当用作不及物动词来说明主语本身所具有的特征时,无被动语态。

  The computers were sold out, because they sell well.

  电脑被卖光了,因为它们卖得好。

  The cloth washes easily.

  这布很好洗。

  4)在“too…to…”结构和形容词 enough to do结构中,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。

  The problem is too difficult to work out.

  5)常见的被动语态的句型搭配

  据说..... It is said that ...

  据报导.. It is reported that ...

  据推测..... It is supposed that ...

  希望.... It is hoped that ...

  众所周知..... It is well known that ...

  普遍认为..... It is generally considered that ...

  有人建议..... It is suggested that



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