Thanks for clicking, and welcome to this advanced grammar lesson on " Active and Passive Infinitives" .
Now, before this lesson, I really recommend checking out the previous lesson that I did on the functions of infinitives, just so you're already familiar with how they work in a sentence, what verbs they can follow, and everything like that.
So, today, we're going to look at active infinitives in which the subject is doing an action plus an infinitive, and we're also going to look at passive infinitives where you are receiving the action.
So, first of all, let's look at the active simple, which is the most basic infinitive use.
And again, an infinitive is " to" plus a base verb.
So: " She plans to invite them". Here, " to invite" .
After " plan" , we always use an infinitive.
There's nothing special going on here.
It's just a present, simple sentence.
" Mike's afraid to make mistakes". We know that many adjectives, such as " afraid" can be followed by an infinitive.
And here we have: " Bermuda is a nice place to spend your vacation".
So, this is basically the simple use of an infinitive.
There's certain verbs that are followed by infinitives, there are many adjectives that are followed by infinitives, there are many noun phrases which are also followed by infinitives.
And this all plays into the rest of this lesson as well.
So, here, we have the active past.
So if you'd like to talk about an action that a subject did in the past and you have to use an infinitive, the structure you use is: " to have" plus the past participle.
So, " to have" is actually the infinitive in this sentence.
For example: " You seem to have forgotten your jacket". So, I'm speaking to you in the present, maybe I'm talking to you on the phone, and you know, you left my party two hours ago, and I say: " Hey. It looks like you left your jacket".
You seem to have forgotten, in the past, your jacket.
And again, " seem" is always followed by an infinitive, so you have to use an infinitive after it.
Past, " to have" plus p. p. Okay, second sentence says: " I was happy to have finished everything early". , " I was happy to have finished" , so this, you're almost using a past perfect structure because what you're doing is you're saying the first action is I finished, you know, I finished everything early, whether it was studying, work, whatever it was.
动作发生在过去的时候，不定式用“to have”加过去分词。好的，第二句话说：“我很高兴早早完成所有事情。” “我很高兴完成”，所以这个，你几乎使用一个完美的过去时结构，因为你所做的就是你说的第一个动作就是我完成了，你知道，我早早完成了所有事情，无论是学习，工作，还是其他事情。
And then I was happy after that.
So this is the first action, and this is the second action.
You can say: " I was happy to finish everything early". That's fine as well.
But if you want to focus more on the order of the action and this, you know, having been completed a little bit earlier, you can do: " to have" plus the past participle.
All right, let's look at the passive forms. Now, in passive, the subject basically here. . .
Well, object, sorry, becomes the focus and it receives the action. Okay?
So, in the passive simple, all you're doing is " to be" plus the past participle.
So, the first sentence says: " They expect to be invited". In general, they expect now to be invited, for example, to a birthday party, or a wedding, or whatever the occasion is, they expect to be invited by someone.
Passive. They're receiving the action. Second sentence: " We waited to be given instructions". So here, " to be given" is using a passive simple structure of an infinitive.
第二句：“我们等待给予指示。”所以在这里，“to be given”是使用不定式的被动结构。
Now, what this means is, you know, we waited in class to be given instructions from the teacher.
The teacher is the one doing the action; we are receiving the action.
And as we know, based on the previous lesson on infinitives and common verbs, " wait" is followed by an infinitive.
So you wait to do something.
And here: " Prepare to be amazed! " This is an. . .
接下来，这句话“Prepare to be amazed!”这是一个...
Well, how can I say this?
Yes, it's an imperative.
So: " Prepare to be amazed! "
whether this is a tagline for a movie or something like that, they are telling you: " Prepare to be amazed" by something.
So, you're going to receive the action of amazement in this situation.
And finally, let's look at the passive past, which again, just like active and passive gerunds, active and passive infinitives, this is the longest construction and the one that is I would say the least frequently used by native English speakers.
So: " I'm happy to have been invited". , " To have been invited" .
The structure, " to have been" , plus the past participle.
结构，“to have been”，加上过去分词。
I'm happy now because I was invited in the past.
So I'm happy.
Again, happy is an adjective.
Many adjectives are followed by infinitives.
I'm happy to have been invited in the past.
Okay, and finally: " It was an honour" . . .
" It was an honour" , in the past, " to have been chosen for the award". I was chosen for the award in the past of the past, kind of like a past perfect construction.
过去，"这是一种荣誉"，“to have been chosen for the award”在过去的过去，我获奖了，有点像一个完美的过去式不定式。
" To have been chosen for the award". Okay.
“To have been chosen for the award”。好吧。
Are you confused?
Are you okay?
Are you breathing?
Okay. Okay. So, if, you know, if you're having some trouble with this stuff, go back, watch my two lessons on " 10 Common Verbs Followed by Infinitives" , watch my lesson on the functions and uses of infinitives which are linked to this video.
好的。 好的。 所以，如果，你知道，如果你在运用这些东西时遇到困难，请回过头来看看关于“10个普通动词跟随不定式”的两节课，观看我对与这个视频相关的不定式的功能和用途的课程。
After, come back, take a deep breath, take the quiz below and let me know how you did.
And if you have any other suggestions for future videos, please also keep them in comment section.
Once again, this has been Alex.
And I'll see you guys next time. Bye.