英语语法主动和被动不定式的区别

admin 2020-09-01 阅读:23

  Thanks for clicking, and welcome to this advanced grammar lesson on " Active and Passive Infinitives" .

  感谢您点击,欢迎阅读有关“主动和被动不定式”的高级语法课程。

  Now, before this lesson, I really recommend checking out the previous lesson that I did on the functions of infinitives, just so you're already familiar with how they work in a sentence, what verbs they can follow, and everything like that.

  So, today, we're going to look at active infinitives in which the subject is doing an action plus an infinitive, and we're also going to look at passive infinitives where you are receiving the action.

  接下来在开始这堂课之前,我真的建议你查看我上一节关于不定式的课程,这样你就已经熟悉了它们如何在一个句子中发挥作用,他们可以后面可以跟什么动词,以及类似的一切。

  所以,这堂课,我们将要学习主动的不定式,就是一句话中主语加不定式,然后还有你接收到动作的被动不定式。

  Okay?

  准备好了吗?

  So, first of all, let's look at the active simple, which is the most basic infinitive use.

  所以,首先让我们学习主动不定式,这是最基本的不定式用法。

  And again, an infinitive is " to" plus a base verb.

  再重复一次,一个不定式是“to”加一个基本的动词。

  So: " She plans to invite them". Here, " to invite" .

  所以她计划邀请他们,这里,“to invite”。

  After " plan" , we always use an infinitive.

  在“plan”这个词后面,我们通常使用一个不定式。

  There's nothing special going on here.

  这句话没什么特别的。

  It's just a present, simple sentence.

  这只是一个一般现在时的简单句子。

  " Mike's afraid to make mistakes". We know that many adjectives, such as " afraid" can be followed by an infinitive.

  “迈克害怕犯错误。”我们知道很多形容词,比如“afraid”,可以跟一个不定式。

  And here we have: " Bermuda is a nice place to spend your vacation".

  接下来看这句话,“百慕大群岛是度假的好地方。”

  Okay?

  看到了吗?

  So, this is basically the simple use of an infinitive.

  所以,这基本上是不定式的简单使用。

  There's certain verbs that are followed by infinitives, there are many adjectives that are followed by infinitives, there are many noun phrases which are also followed by infinitives.

  有些特定的动词后面跟着不定式,有许多形容词后面跟着不定式,有很多名词短语,后面跟着不定式。

  And this all plays into the rest of this lesson as well.

  这些成分也在本课程的其余部分中发挥作用。

  So, here, we have the active past.

  因此,今天我们学习发生在过去的主动不定式。

  So if you'd like to talk about an action that a subject did in the past and you have to use an infinitive, the structure you use is: " to have" plus the past participle.

  因此,如果你想谈论一个在过去做过的动作而你必须使用一个不定式,你使用的结构是:“to have”加上过去分词。

  So, " to have" is actually the infinitive in this sentence.

  所以,“to have”实际上是这句话中的不定式。

  For example: " You seem to have forgotten your jacket". So, I'm speaking to you in the present, maybe I'm talking to you on the phone, and you know, you left my party two hours ago, and I say: " Hey. It looks like you left your jacket".

  举个例子“你似乎已经忘记了你的夹克。” 所以,我现在正在和你说话,也许我在电话里跟你说话,你知道,两个小时前你离开了我的派对,我说:“嘿。好像你忘记带走了你的夹克。”

  You seem to have forgotten, in the past, your jacket.

  在过去,你似乎已经忘记了你的夹克。

  And again, " seem" is always followed by an infinitive, so you have to use an infinitive after it.

  而且,“seem”总是后跟一个不定式,所以你必须在它之后使用不定式。

  Past, " to have" plus p. p. Okay, second sentence says: " I was happy to have finished everything early". , " I was happy to have finished" , so this, you're almost using a past perfect structure because what you're doing is you're saying the first action is I finished, you know, I finished everything early, whether it was studying, work, whatever it was.

  动作发生在过去的时候,不定式用“to have”加过去分词。好的,第二句话说:“我很高兴早早完成所有事情。” “我很高兴完成”,所以这个,你几乎使用一个完美的过去时结构,因为你所做的就是你说的第一个动作就是我完成了,你知道,我早早完成了所有事情,无论是学习,工作,还是其他事情。

  And then I was happy after that.

  然后在完成了事情之后我很高兴。

  Right?

  懂了吗?

  So this is the first action, and this is the second action.

  所以做完事情是第一个动作,开心是第二个动作。

  You can say: " I was happy to finish everything early". That's fine as well.

  你可以说:“我很乐意尽早完成所有事情。” 那也没关系。

  But if you want to focus more on the order of the action and this, you know, having been completed a little bit earlier, you can do: " to have" plus the past participle.

  但是如果你想更多地关注动作的顺序和这个,你知道,你已经完成了一点,你可以做到:“to have”加上过去分词。

  All right, let's look at the passive forms. Now, in passive, the subject basically here. . .

  好吧,让我们来看看被动形式。 现在,在被动不定式中,主语基本上在这里......

  Well, object, sorry, becomes the focus and it receives the action. Okay?

  好吧,宾语,不好意思,宾语成为中心并且是接受者。了解吗?

  So, in the passive simple, all you're doing is " to be" plus the past participle.

  所以,在被动句中,你所做的只是“to be”加上过去的分词。

  So, the first sentence says: " They expect to be invited". In general, they expect now to be invited, for example, to a birthday party, or a wedding, or whatever the occasion is, they expect to be invited by someone.

  Passive. They're receiving the action. Second sentence: " We waited to be given instructions". So here, " to be given" is using a passive simple structure of an infinitive.

  所以,第一句话说:“他们希望被邀请。” 一般来说,他们希望现在可以被邀请例如参加生日派对或婚礼,或者无论什么场合,他们都希望被某人邀请。

  被动。 他们正在接受这个行动。

  第二句:“我们等待给予指示。”所以在这里,“to be given”是使用不定式的被动结构。

  Now, what this means is, you know, we waited in class to be given instructions from the teacher.

  现在,这意味着,我们在课堂上等待老师的指示。

  The teacher is the one doing the action; we are receiving the action.

  老师是做行动的人;我们正在接受动作。

  And as we know, based on the previous lesson on infinitives and common verbs, " wait" is followed by an infinitive.

  据我们所知,根据上一节关于不定式和普通动词的课,“wait”之后接不定式。

  So you wait to do something.

  所以你等着做点什么。

  Okay?

  知道了吗?

  And here: " Prepare to be amazed! " This is an. . .

  接下来,这句话“Prepare to be amazed!”这是一个...

  Well, how can I say this?

  好吧,我该怎么说呢?

  Yes, it's an imperative.

  是的,这是祈使语气。

  Right?

  知道吗?

  So: " Prepare to be amazed! "

  所以:“准备好惊讶吧!”

  whether this is a tagline for a movie or something like that, they are telling you: " Prepare to be amazed" by something.

  无论这是电影的标语还是类似的东西,他们都在告诉你:“准备好被某些东西惊呆了”。

  So, you're going to receive the action of amazement in this situation.

  所以,在这种情况下,你会收到让你吃惊的动作。

  And finally, let's look at the passive past, which again, just like active and passive gerunds, active and passive infinitives, this is the longest construction and the one that is I would say the least frequently used by native English speakers.

  So: " I'm happy to have been invited". , " To have been invited" .

  最后,让我们看一下被动的过去时,再次,就像主动和被动动词,主动和被动不定式,这是最长的解释,也就是我所说的英语母语人士最不常用的句式。

  所以:“我很高兴被邀请。” ,“被邀请”。

  The structure, " to have been" , plus the past participle.

  结构,“to have been”,加上过去分词。

  I'm happy now because I was invited in the past.

  我现在很高兴,因为我过去曾被邀请。

  So I'm happy.

  所以我很开心。

  Again, happy is an adjective.

  同样,快乐是一个形容词。

  Many adjectives are followed by infinitives.

  许多形容词后面都是不定式。

  I'm happy to have been invited in the past.

  我很高兴过去被邀请过。

  Okay, and finally: " It was an honour" . . .

  好的,最后:“这是一种荣誉”......

  " It was an honour" , in the past, " to have been chosen for the award". I was chosen for the award in the past of the past, kind of like a past perfect construction.

  过去,"这是一种荣誉",“to have been chosen for the award”在过去的过去,我获奖了,有点像一个完美的过去式不定式。

  " To have been chosen for the award". Okay.

  “To have been chosen for the award”。好吧。

  Are you confused?

  你困惑吗?

  Are you okay?

  你还好吗?

  Are you breathing?

  你在呼吸吗?

  Okay. Okay. So, if, you know, if you're having some trouble with this stuff, go back, watch my two lessons on " 10 Common Verbs Followed by Infinitives" , watch my lesson on the functions and uses of infinitives which are linked to this video.

  好的。 好的。 所以,如果,你知道,如果你在运用这些东西时遇到困难,请回过头来看看关于“10个普通动词跟随不定式”的两节课,观看我对与这个视频相关的不定式的功能和用途的课程。

  After, come back, take a deep breath, take the quiz below and let me know how you did.

  之后,回来,深吸一口气,参加下面的测验,让我知道你学的怎么样。

  And if you have any other suggestions for future videos, please also keep them in comment section.

  如果您对未来的视频有任何其他建议,请在下面评论部分留言。

  Once again, this has been Alex.

  再说一次,我是亚历克斯。

  And I'll see you guys next time. Bye.



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